Tailings are produced when you extract a target mineral from ore, and then store the un-used ore and rock in large dams. There are, however, safer technologies to store the waste. At the moment over 71 % of excavated material ends up in a dump. In Finland the amount of mining waste is 76 % of the total amount of waste produced in the country.
Water is critical in mining and in enrichment processes. Particularly in rainy regions, it is important to control the water balance to avoid breaking or overflowing dams. Different water treatment technologies offer new tools for this, tools which assure discharge is as clean as possible.
Direct carbon emissions are fairly low in mining. However, within the industry efforts are underway to lower them even more via electrification of machinery. Mining supports effects vis-à-vis climate by producing metals for batteries, the key product for electrification.